Physics of Volleyball (2023)

Physics of Volleyball Maya Perez 4th hour

History of Volleyball

William G. Morgan

Volleyball was created by William G. Morgan in 1895 when it was first called Mintonette before being changed to volleyball in 1952. VVolleyabll has had major and minor changes over the time. In 1916 the net was raised from 6'6 to 8 feet. In 1949 a rule was set that allowed players to hit the ball with any body part from the knees up. Even the pressure of the ball was changed (from 3.0 to 3.25kg/cm2). These changes have made volleyball an unique and one of a kind sport

How is volleyball played?

The court

The volleyball court consists of two teams of six players. The two teams are divided by the net that is located in the middle of the court. The objective of the game is to send the ball over the net so the opposeing team can not return the ball or prevent the ball from hitting the ground on their side of the court.

(Video) A Physically Perfect Volleyball Serve?

Speed is the rate that an object covers distance.

Depending on the force applied to hit the volleyball will determine the speed and build of momentum. When a player moves to dive for the ball, is showing the change of speed. For EXAMPLE if a player runs after the ball moving down TO the ground, the faster that player oust go to reach the ball before it hits the ground. When ever the ball is acted on by an unbalanced force it will show speed and how it changes fro STATIONARY to moving. There are FEW objects that are stationary in the sport. Volleyball is about moving around to it the ball before it hits the ground, so there are many times SPEED affects volleyball.

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Velocity is the rate an object changes position or direction.

when a Volleyball is served across the court and then is hit back in the opposite direction would be an example of changed velocity. WHen th VELOCITY is higher than this means that it will be harder for the other team to successfully hit the ball w/o it hitting the ground. When serving the ball you must transport the VELOCITY IN your arm when SWINGING to hit the ball, and hit it at a high enough position for the ball to be directed in an arc over the net. when the ball EXPERIENCES change in displacement this could be an example of velocity change. When the ball is spiked with the correct amount of velocity the ball will result in hitting the ground w/o another player hitting it back.

Acceleration is the increase in velocity.

Ball ACCELERATES when gravity is PULLING THE ball towards the ground. The ball is constantly increasing/decreasing in ACCELERATION during the game. In VOLLEYBALL the importance of ACCELERATION is greater than velocity. When the ball is spiked over the net and therefor also shows INCREASE in VELOCITY and ACCELERATION. The players also show ACCELERATION THROUGH-out the game when moving to hit the ball or rotating court POSITIONS.

Gravity is a pulling force that attracts any object with mass, pulls the object towards the ground

When digging the volleyball, you EXERT a rapid upward force on the ball to ensure it does not hit the ground. IN this situation gravity is also exerting a force, although it is downwards. Gravity is being EXCRETED EVERYTHING the ball is in the air. Gravity will effect every contact with the ball when acted on by an UNBALANCED force from the players. Although when spiking the ball YOU'RE ATTEMPTING to make the ball hit the ground which will result in your team earning a point. spiking is one of the only plays that you actually are want the ball to hit the ground.

Friction is the action that one surface or object rubs aganist another.

When players are contantly moving every which Way, their shoes A po oppose motion annex starts a Connecticut friction between the floor and the sole of the shoe. Fluid friction ask on the ball well in the air making the ball slow down when traveling through the air. You experience static friction when pushing off but every step the friction between your shoe in ground help you from slipping. Th The air resistance of the ball when following can be found with the equation F = M a. F = force M = mass a = acceleration. Th The mass of an average volleyball is 260 g. The accelerationis about 3.1. The force would then be 0.8 1N

Newtons 1st Law

Objects at rest stay at rest as for an object in motion which stays in motion at the same speed and instance unless acted on by an unbalanced force

There are many examples of Newtons 1st Law that relate to volleyball such as, when a player blocks the volleyball, the blockers forearms act as an unbalancted force that has stopped the ball from movement. Even when a player is in the front row is completely still is then ran into by another player would be a situation realting to a object at rest that is acted on by an unbalnced force. When a player serves the ballunsuccessfully and the ball reacts in hitting the net, the ball acts as a unbalanced force as for the net which is an object at rest. The volleyball net will stay motionless unless a player or ball hit it. When two players block the ball at the same time, the ball results in not going neither direction and is motionless, although gravity then immediately pulls the ball back down and hit the ground.

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Newtons 2nd Law

The acceleration of an object is proportional to the net force acting on the object and inversely proportional to the mass of the object.

An examPle of newtons second law would bewhen smaller players and move around the court that accelerate faster due to their LoW mass. Th The faster your arm swing one spikiNg, The more FORCE EXERTED on the balL. The harder you hit the ball the faster it will go in whatever direction you hit it in. If if you hit the ball harder then the ball will go farther, resulting in it GOING OUT of BOUNDs.

Newtons 3rd Law

"To every action there's an equal and opposite reaction" -Newton

When you hit the ball the ball is heading your arms with just as much force. When passing the ball, the ball is acted on by gravity and it hits the ground or players arm. Wh when she serve the ball it starts to travel away from you and then it hits the opposite direction that you hit it in. The The force of the volleyball hitting the arm of the player would be the action, as the force of the player acting on the ball would be the reaction. When the ball is hit it will hit either the ground, net, or players on at an equal amount of force.


(Video) The Physics Behind a Volleyball Serve


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What is the physics of hitting a volleyball? ›

When spiking the volleyball the player exerts a downward force on the ball, crushing it to the other side of the net. When spiking the ball, gravity is now working in the players favor. Players dont have to hit the ball as hard because gravitational force is acting on the ball in the same downward direction.

What energy is in volleyball physics? ›

Energy of motion is called kinetic energy. A volleyball's kinetic energy enables the ball to do work when it strikes a net and forces the net to deform. net gains elastic potential energy. This gives the net the ability to do work on the ball, stopping its motion and forcing it to move in the opposite direction.

What is projectile motion physics in volleyball? ›

Projectile Motion describes the motion of the ball. Whether it's a serve, set, or dig, a volleyball will always travel in a parabolic motion. This is because the only force that acts on the ball after the ball is given an initial force is gravity assuming that there is no air resistance.

How does velocity affect volleyball? ›

Speed and quick feet help players immediately react to whatever direction the ball is hit, preventing it from touching the floor. Hitting, blocking, setting, and digging skills will all improve when a player is able to quickly move around the volleyball court.

What are the mechanics of volleyball? ›

To start, flip a coin to determine which team serves the ball first. Then the two teams will rally—or hit the ball back and forth over the net—until a fault occurs. There is a maximum of three hits per side. The objective is to score points by sending the ball over the net, grounding it into the opponent's court.

What are the 3 types for hitting in volleyball? ›

The 3 types of hits are: bump, volley and spike, or more modernly called pass, set and kill (or hit). This may seem like a confusing list to start with but it really is quite simple once you understand each category.

How is power used in volleyball? ›

Volleyball is a sport dominated by strength and power. Players need power in their legs to get high in the air and strength in their upper body to spike, block, and dig balls. Lifting weights stimulates muscle fibers to grow, which allows athletes to produce more force at faster rates.

Which energy is kicking a ball? ›

Kinetic energy is the energy of anything in motion. Your muscles move your leg, your foot kicks the ball, and the ball gains kinetic energy from the kick.

What makes a volleyball bounce? ›

The force of the ball hitting the hard ground puts an equal force back onto the ball, meaning it bounces back up. This happens because balls are made out of an elastic material which allows them to be squashed or stretched and then return to their original shape.

What plane of motion is volleyball in? ›

Heidens also teach force absorption and production in the frontal (lateral) plane. Most of volleyball consists of lateral movements, so if a player is strong side-to-side, not only will it reduce injury risk but she will be more confident moving sideways and will thus do it more.

What is acceleration in volleyball? ›

Acceleration occurs when there is an increase in velocity. This can be achieved in volleyball by a few tricks. Acceleration that occurs without the aid of the player happens because of the downward force of gravity. A player can also create top spin on the ball to make the ball accelerate towards the ground.

What is the initial velocity of volleyball? ›

Recall that the ball was served with an initial angle of 56.1 degrees and an initial velocity of 32.75ft/sec to obtain the optimal serve.

How do you increase your speed and accuracy in volleyball? ›

lifting the ball towards the eyes facilitates eye-hand coordination; extending the hips before contacting the volleyball generates more power and leads to more strength and accuracy in the standing serve.

How does Newton's law of motion apply to volleyball? ›

Newton's Law of Motion states that a force is equal to the mass of object times its acceleration. In volleyball, this means that the more momentum (mass and velocity) a player has, the harder they will hit the ball.

What are the 5 fundamentals of volleyball? ›

The following are described: serving, passing (forearm underhand passing), setting (overhead passing), attack options (hitting/spiking), blocking (from attack and defend positions), and defensive skills (rolling & sliding).

What are the 5 basic rules of volleyball? ›

Basic Volleyball Rules for Playing the Game
  • 6 players on a team, 3 on the front row and 3 on the back row.
  • Maximum of three hits per side.
  • Player may not hit the ball twice in succession (A block is not considered a hit)
  • Ball may be played off the net during a volley and on a serve.
  • A ball hitting a boundary line is "in"

What are the 5 Basics volleyball positions explain? ›

The six main positions in volleyball are setter, outside hitter, opposite hitter, libero, right-side hitter, and middle blocker. Also, a team can have a defensive specialist and serving specialist according to the coach's playing styles, these two positions being less common outside U.S. volleyball.

What is the most powerful shot in volleyball? ›

Spike. The "spike" is when the ball is hit or smashed across the net. It is the most powerful shot in volleyball – and the most effective way to win a rally.

What type of hit is illegal in volleyball? ›

An illegal hit is: 1) slapping the ball, 2) bumping the ball with two separated hands (hands must be together), 3) carrying the ball, 4) palming the ball, 5) directing the ball.

What skill is the most important in volleyball? ›

Passing is simply getting the ball to someone else on your team after it's been served or hit over the net by the opposing team. It's commonly thought of as the most important skill in all of volleyball, because your team can't return the ball without a solid volleyball pass.

What factors affect performance in volleyball? ›

Abstract: Volleyball games require good motor skills and cardiorespiratory skills. Power, strength and endurance become very influential factors in performance and winning the match.

What is the ball pressure in volleyball? ›

A regulation volleyball should be 65-67 centimeters in circumference and weigh 260-280 grams (9-10 oz). The ball's inside pressure should be 0.30-0.325 kg/cm2 (4.26-4.61 psi).

What energy does a volleyball player spiking a ball? ›

So let's start valuable player spiking a ball. So that action is causes causes the ball to move. And that is therefore kinetic energy.

What energy allows a ball to bounce? ›

Elastic potential energy is what causes a ball to bounce, or rebound, because it is transformed into kinetic energy, which is then used to bring the ball back up.

Is kicking a ball a force in physics? ›

Kicking a ball is an example of force.

Is hitting a ball kinetic or potential energy? ›

Hitting, for example, demonstrates the relationship between kinetic and potential energy. Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. Both the swinging bat and the pitched ball possess kinetic energy, which is generated by the players who swing the bat and throw the ball.

Do heavier balls bounce higher? ›

Both balls will fall at a similar speed, but because kinetic energy is proportional to the mass of the object, the heavy ball reaches Earth with more energy. It will not necessarily rebound higher, as it also needs more kinetic energy to reach a specific height again.

Why do smaller balls bounce higher? ›

If you are comparing a big ball and a little ball that have the same mass, air resistance will slow the big one down more than the small one because the big ball has more surface area for the air to be rubbing against.

What affects ball bounce? ›

The combination of the material properties of a ball (surface textures, actual materials, amount of air, hardness/ softness, and so on) affects the height of its bounce.

What law of motion is hitting a volleyball? ›

Newton's third law of motion states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. This means that if something is pushed or pulled, it will also move in the opposite direction. In the same way, when a ball is hit in volleyball, it must ricochet off the ground back to its player.

What type of collision is volleyball? ›

2. Inelastic Collision: objects collide but deform in some way, losing energy (ex: a volleyball hitting the floor). Objects bounce back less or not at all (hit and stick).

What are the physics of hitting a baseball? ›

In the fraction of a second that the ball collides with the swinging bat, the ball compresses as the energy of the motion goes into deforming the ball and transforms into into elastic potential energy. This potential energy is transformed into kinetic energy as the ball leaves the bat.

What is the reaction force of volleyball player hitting volleyball? ›

When a volleyball player hit the ball, she exerts an upward action force. The ball also experiences an equal but opposite downward reaction force.

How is Newton's 2nd law used in volleyball? ›

Newton's 2nd Law

The law of acceleration is seen every time a volleyball player moves on the court. For smaller athletes are more agile on the court because their lower mass accelerates and decelerates more quickly. This is particularly critical on defense during a volleyball game.

How is Newton's 1st law used in volleyball? ›

Volleyball fits in with the Newtons First law

The force of the servers hand applying pressure to the ball to make the ball go up ward will make the ball stay in motion till the server then hits the ball. The ball remains in motion until it reaches the opposing team, hits the net, and or hits the ground.


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