Substance abuse refers to the harmful or hazardous use of psychoactive substances, including alcohol and illicit drugs. The use of psychoactive substances causes significant health and social problems for the people who use them, and also for others in their families and communities. Substances of abuse include alcohol, opiates, cocaine, amphetamines, hallucinogens, prescription and over-the-counter drug abuse. (Psychoactive substances are substances that, when taken in or administered into one's system, affect mental processes).
Psychoactive substance use poses a significant threat to the health, social and economic aspects of families, communities and nations. Globally, the prevalence of alcohol use disorders is significantly higher than the prevalence of drug use disorders. Generally, alcohol and drug use disorders are more common among males than among females. According to the World Health Organisation Report 2002 (WHO), 8.9% of the total burden of disease is due to use of psychoactive substances; tobacco accounted for 4.1%, alcohol 4%, and illicit drugs 0.8% of the burden of disease .There are 2 billion alcohol users, 1.3 billion smokers and 185 million drug users globally (WHO 2002). These three psychoactive substances have different disease burden on different age groups. Illicit drug use causes mortality earliest in life, alcohol also mainly (65%) before the age of 60, while 70% of the tobacco deaths occur after the age of 60.
The use of different substances varies in different WHO regions as in Europe and South-East Asia tobacco use is the largest burden while alcohol is the largest burden in Africa, the Americas, and Western Pacific.
155 to 250 million people, or 3.5% to 5.7% of world’s population aged 15-64 used other psychoactive substances, such as cannabis, amphetamines, cocaine, opioids, and non-prescribed psychoactive prescription medication (WHO-2008). Globally, cannabis is the most commonly used substance (129-190 million people), followed by amphetamine type stimulants, then cocaine and opioids.
People who inject drugs (psychoactive drugs for non medical purposes) are at increased risk of HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C. Around 13 million people inject drugs globally and 1.7 million of them are living with HIV; injecting drug user accounts for approximately 10% of HIV infections. The estimated global prevalence of hepatitis C in people who inject drugs is 67%.
In India opioids are commonly used by IDUs. These opioids include heroin (‘smack’ / ‘brown sugar’) as well as pharmaceutical opioids (such as buprenorphine, pentazocine and dextro-propoxyphene). In the north-eastern region, heroin and dextropropoxyphene are the most commonly used opioids; impure heroin (smack), and buprenorphine are the most commonly used opioids in metropolitan cities such as Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata. Pentazocine is the most commonly injected opioid in Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Chattisgarh. In the states of Punjab and Haryana, buprenorphine is commonly used by injectors. As per the HIV sentinel surveillance report, HIV prevalence among IDUs in India is 7.2%. However, some states have much higher HIV rates among IDUs such as HIV prevalence among IDUs is 21% in Punjab, 18% in Delhi and around 12% in Manipur and Mizoram.
Psychoactive substance use by drivers has been associated with impaired driving and increased accidents risk.
Health and social problems associated with use of and dependence on tobacco, alcohol and illicit substances can be prevented by greater awareness by individuals, families and societies to use appropriate public health actions.
Substance use problems can arise as a result of acute intoxication, regular use or dependence, and from the way in which substances are used. It is possible for a person to have problems from all of these.
Acute intoxication can occur as a result of a single episode of drug use. Intoxication is highly dependent on the type and dose of drug and is influenced by an individual's level of tolerance and other factors. Problems may be-
- Ataxia, vomiting, fever and confusion
- overdose and loss of consciousness
- prone to accidents and injury
- aggressive, unpredictable behavior and violence
- unintended sex and unsafe sexual practices
The term acute intoxication is most commonly used with regard to alcohol use and in everyday speech it is called as “drunkenness". Alcohol intoxication is manifested by such signs as facial flushing, slurred speech, unsteady gait, euphoria, increased activity, talkativeness, disorderly conduct, slowed reactions, impaired judgment and motor incoordination, insensibility.
Regular use- A variety of different problems can occur from using the psychoactive substances regularly ranging from physical, mental and social problems:
- specific physical and mental health problems,
- tolerance (person no longer responds to the drug in the way that person initially responded),
- anxiety, depression, mood swings, irritability,
- criminal offences,
- relationship problems,
- cognitive problems relating to memory or attention,
- difficulties with regular job or study.
Dependent use: Dependence is usually associated with more frequent use of a substance, and at higher doses than used previously. The problems arising from dependent use of a substance can be similar to those observed with regular use, but are more severe:
- craving and increased desire to use,
- anxiety, irritability, gastrointestinal upsets and sleep problems,
- increasingly dysfunctional in daily life,
- marked tolerance,
- criminal behavior,
- relationship breakdowns,
- difficulty stopping in spite of problems,
- possible withdrawal symptoms on abstinence,
- continued use despite evidence the use is causing harms to the individual.
Injecting of any drug is associated with following risks-
- Vein collapse
- Local: abscesses and ulcers
- Systemic-HIV, Hepatitis C
Specific health and other problems due to individual substances
Smoking/chewing of tobacco products
- It is a risk factor for a number of serious long term health problems and increases the severity of diseases such as high blood pressure, diabetes and asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases.
- Children exposed to second-hand tobacco smoke are at increased risk of health problems such as respiratory infections, allergies and asthma.
- Pregnant women who smoke are at higher risk of miscarriage, premature labour and having a low birth weight baby.
- Tobacco use is risk factor for cancers of lung, bladder, breast, mouth, throat and oesophagus.
Alcohol consumption alcohol use contributes to a wide range of diseases, health conditions and high-risk behaviours, from mental disorders and road traffic injuries, to liver diseases and unsafe sexual behaviour.
- Alcohol consumption at unsafe levels is a major cause of premature illness, disability and death and wide range of social problems.
- Women who consume alcohol during pregnancy are at risk of having babies with birth defects, learning and behavioural difficulties and impaired brain development.
- Liver and pancreas diseases.
- Cancers of the mouth, throat and breast.
Cannabis-The likelihood of death due to cannabis intoxication alone is very low, although combination with other drugs can result in overdose and death. Cannabis use is associated with numerous negative health consequences.
Cocaine-Cocaine is a stimulant drug. There is a significant risk of toxic complications and sudden death, usually due to cocaine’s effect on the cardiovascular system.
Amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) can lead to a wide range of physical and mental health problems.
Inhalants cover all volatile solvents that can be inhaled or breathed in. The most commonly used volatile substances include petrol, solvents, glues, sprays, lacquers containing benzene and glues or paint thinners containing toluene. The most common way they are used is to sniff them from a container, although some may breathe them through a plastic bag. The short term effects include nausea, vomiting, headaches, and diarrhoea. Higher doses can cause slurred speech, disorientation, confusion, delusions, weakness, tremor, headaches, and visual hallucinations. Ultimately use can cause coma or death from a heart failure.
Sedatives and sleeping pills: Tolerance and dependence on sedatives or sleeping pills can develop after a short period of use, and withdrawal from these drugs can be extremely unpleasant. Withdrawal symptoms include severe anxiety and panic, insomnia, depression, headache, sweating and fever, nausea and vomiting and convulsions.
Hallucinogens: These are the group of drugs that affect the user’s perceptions of reality by distortion of one or several of the five senses (vision, hearing, smell, taste, touch) resulting in hallucinations.
Opioids: Use of street or non-prescribed opioids (heroin and opium) can cause many problems for users, particularly as they are generally injected or smoked which can create further problems for the user.
Some risk factors that can influence a child for later substance abuse and other problems have their presence during different developmental periods of life. Many risk factors are related and tend to cluster together. Following are the various risk factors:
Smoking and drinking alcohol during pregnancy can affect a developing fetus with altered growth and physical development and cognitive impairments in the child.
Infancy and childhood:
Insecure attachmentduring the child’s first year of life can cause a child to be aggressive or withdrawn and have difficulty interacting with other children or adults. Uncontrolled aggression during early childhood can lead to poor social skills and problems during preschool period.
Lack of classroom structurein the school environment can lead to additional social and behavioral problems in children and academic failure. At the same time, they may be exposed to greater availability of drugs, drug abusers, and social activities involving drugs. These challenges can increase the risk that they will abuse alcohol, tobacco, and other substances.
Parental abuse and neglect are commonly seen as part of the cause of drug abuse. An adolescent or pre-adolescent may be trying to gain attention from an inattentive parent or escape an abusive one by using drugs; prolonged attempts through drug use can be a cause of drug abuse.
Parental substance use can also affect child both directly and indirectly by disturbing family environment and poor parenting. There are increased chances of child abuse and neglect in such families.
Parental smoking in home can also expose children to secondhand smoke; putting them risk for health and behavioral problems as well as increasing children’s likelihood of smoking when they grow older.
Association with drug abusing peers is often the most immediate risk for exposing adolescent.
Mental illnesses can increase risk for drug abuse.
Genetic factors also influence the person’s vulnerability to addiction.
Many people use substances because they have pleasurable or desirable effects, while others may use them to block out physical or psychological pain. Some people use these substances to increase their performance, to stay awake or lose weight.
Methods of substance use-
- Injected with a needle under the skin, into a vein or muscle
- Smoked or inhaled through the mouth or nose, or inhaled by placing a bag over the head (bagging)
- Placed on a mucus membrane (such as inside the anus or vagina, the nose or under the eyelid)
- Chewed, swallowed or dissolved slowly in the mouth
- Rubbed in to the skin
In response to the overwhelming public health burden associated with psychoactive substance use worldwide, WHO experts developed the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST).
- The ASSIST can be completed in about five to ten minutes and can be incorporated into the normal consultation at primary health care services.
- A list of substances such as tobacco products, alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS), sedatives and sleeping pills (benzodiazepines), hallucinogens, inhalants, opioids, ‘other’ drugs are included in the screening test.
- The ASSIST obtains information from persons about lifetime use of substances, and use of substances and associated problems over the last 3 months.
- It can identify a range of problems associated with substance use including acute intoxication, regular use, dependent or ‘high risk’ use and injecting behaviour.
- The ASSIST determines a risk score for each substance.
- The score obtained for each substance falls into a ‘lower‘, ‘moderate’ or ‘high’ risk category which determines the most appropriate intervention for that level of use (‘no treatment’, ‘brief intervention’ or ‘referral to specialist assessment and treatment’ respectively).
In brief the ASSIST comprises the following questions:
- Question 1 (Q1) asks about which substances have ever been used in the person’s lifetime.
- (Q2) asks about the frequency of substance use in the past three months, which gives an indication of the substances which are most relevant to current health status.
- (Q3) asks about the frequency of experiencing a strong desire or urge to use each substance in the last three months.
- (Q4) asks about the frequency of health, social, legal or financial problems related to substance use in the last three months.
- (Q5) asks about the frequency with which use of each substance has interfered with role responsibilities in the past three months.
- (Q6) asks if anyone else has ever expressed concern about the person’s use of each substance and how recently that occurred.
- (Q7) asks whether the person has ever tried to cut down or stop use of a substance, and failed in that attempt, and how recently that occurred.
- (Q8) asks whether the client has ever injected any substance and how recently that occurred.
Screening aims to detect health problems or risk factors at an early stage before they have caused serious disease or other problems, and is part of maintaining prevention practice activities in health care settings.
Management of substance abuse incorporates many components as it disrupts several aspects of an individual’s life. Addiction treatment must help the individual stop using drugs, maintain a drug-free lifestyle, and achieve productive functioning in the family, at work, and in society. Patients require long-term and repeated episodes of care to achieve the ultimate goal of sustained abstinence and recovery.
Principles of effective treatment should be:
- Substance abuse is treatable.
- Treatment varies depending on the type of drug and the characteristics of the patients
- Treatment needs to be readily available.
- Effective treatment must address the individual drug abuse and any associated medical, psychological, social, vocational and legal problems.
- Behavioral therapies including individual, family, or group counseling are the most commonly used forms of drug abuse treatment.
- Medications are an important element of treatment for many patients (such as alcohol, nicotine,heroin or other opioids), especially when combined with counseling and other behavioral therapies.
- An individual's treatment and services plan must be assessed continually and modified as necessary to ensure that it meets his or her changing needs.
- The appropriate duration of treatment for an individual depends on the type and degree of the patient’s problems and needs. Usually recovery from drug addiction is a long-term process and frequently requires multiple episodes of treatment.
- Several sub groups within the larger population of individuals affected by drug use disorders such as adolescents, women, pregnant women, people with medical and psychiatric co-morbidities, sex workers, and socially marginalized individuals, prisoners often require targeted and specialized care.
- Target populations, their families, community members and local organization should be actively involved in the planning, implementation and monitoring of drug dependence treatment services.
- As drug related crimes are highly prevalent, there should be coordination between drug dependence treatment and criminal justice system for such individuals.
The damage caused by substance abuse depends on the type of drug abused and the duration of abuse. The following factors also influence the severity of the problems that follow drug abuse:
Age: The damage is greater among adolescents as well those who are above 50 years of age.
Nutrition status and living conditions: Poor quality and inadequate quantity of food, unhygienic living conditions and poor access to health care increase the problems caused by drug abuse.
Health condition prior to abuse: The damage is less among individuals whose physical condition is good, as compared to individuals whose health was poor even before the onset of addiction.
Genetic loading factor: A family history of a specific medical or psychiatric problem makes the individual more susceptible to the same problems in comparison to another drug abuser who is not genetically prone to the disorder.
Medical and psychiatric complications due to substance abuse:
a)Problems due to intoxication
- Trauma or other physical injury: Mood changes caused by drugs reduce inhibitions as well as increase negative feelings leading to violence.
- Driving vehicles or operating machinery under the influence of alcohol/ drugs causes accidents and injury.
- Poor judgment and poor coordination can cause physical injury or even death.
- Perceptual distortions can also result in accidents.
- Acute intoxication reaction.
- Coma and overdose deaths.
b) Problems due to withdrawal-Physical withdrawal symptoms of varying intensity occur as part of withdrawal.
c) Psychiatric disorders associated with substance abuse-Psychoactive substances can induce psychotic disorders during or immediately after use such as cannabis.
d) Systemic disorders associated with substance abuse
- When the same vein is used to inject the drug, repeated injections leave marks on the vein. The discoloration along the vein leaves dark lines called needle tracks.
- Tattooing and scarring in IV drug users at injecting site.
- Use of infected needles can cause infection at the injection site.
- Pruritis and dermatitis
- Infection in the heart
- Blocking circulation: Repeated injections at the same site can cause blood clots or air bubbles (emboli) that can block the blood supply in the veins.
- Ventricular fibrillation: This may lead to hemorrhage and sudden death.
- Embolus formation
- Pulmonary oedema
- Aspiration pneumonia
- Pharyngitis, bronchitis, pneumonia and tuberculosis are common infective respiratory diseases among drug abusers.
- Hepatitis: Hepatitis B, C & D are blood borne infections that can be transmitted through sharing of needles.
- Alcoholic hepatitis
- Fatty liver
- Alcoholic cirrhosis
- Hepatic trauma
Complications in the reproductive system
- The incidence of sexually transmitted diseases is higher among drug abusers.
- Drug abuse can reduce sex drive and cause impotence.
- Reduced ovulation and menstrual abnormality are seen among female drug abusers.
- Children born to mothers who abuse drugs and alcohol during their pregnancy usually have low birth weight and other problems in their physical and mental development.
- Cerebrovascular accidents
- Bacterial meningitis
- Reduced count of platelets in the blood may lead to bleeding disorders.
- Bone marrow depression: The count of both white and red blood corpuscles may fall.
- Poor nutritional status can cause anemia, especially among alcoholics.
Endocrine system disorders
- Ganja, opiate and alcohol abuse lowers the testosterone levels in the body,
- Incidence of diabetes mellitus increases among alcoholics.
Renal function disorders:
- Damage to renal cells cause nephropathy.
- Gastritis (inflammation of the lining of the stomach) and peptic ulcers can develop due to poor food habits as well as due to the effect of the drugs abused.
- Acute and chronic pancreatitis.
- The incidence of cancer all along the gastro intestinal tract from the mouth to the anus is higher among alcoholics.
As most drug and alcohol abusers also abuse tobacco products, the risk of cancer is high.
WHO has recommended the prevention of substance abuse as primary prevention, early intervention, treatment, care, recovery, rehabilitation and social reintegration measures, along with measures aimed at minimizing the adverse public health and social consequences of drug abuse.
- Successful prevention of substance use and risk reduction is thus an essential approach to achieve better public health outcomes in following disorders:
- The prevention of substance-induced mental disorders and
- reductions in injuries and violence (traffic and domestic injuries, child abuse, and gender-based, sexual and other violence),
- reduction in communicable diseases such as HIV, viral hepatitis and tuberculosis, sexual and reproductive health problems (sexually transmitted infections, unplanned pregnancies and complicated pregnancies) and
- reduction in noncommunicable diseases (such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases and liver diseases).
Prevention of drug abuse can be achieved by-
i) To take effective and practical primary prevention measures that protect people, in particular children and youth, from drug use initiation:
- by providing them with accurate information about the risks of drug abuse,
- by developing supportive parenting and healthy social environments and
- by promoting skills and opportunities to choose healthy lifestyles and
- by ensuring equal access to education and vocational training;
The family is the strongest factor in protecting children from drug use and other risky behaviour. Families that are happy communicate openly and provide a healthy environment and a positive future for their children.
Schools can cultivate sound values in their students in relation to health and drug use through the development of knowledge and providing them with coping skills to face situations which can lead to drug abuse. It is also necessary to target those who are not in school. Therefore, outreach efforts on the streets are often helpful.
Workplace: Employers can promote the health of employees by preventing substance abuse and assisting those with a drug dependence problem.
ii) To take effective measures to prevent progression to severe drug use disorders through targeted interventions for people at risk for such progression.
iii) Raising awareness of drug-driving and its impact on road safety including deaths, injuries, property damage and harm to other road users among the general public. Policy-makers can reduce drug-driving by enforcing drug driving laws. It is important not only to enforce drug driving laws but also to counsel and, when appropriate, treat drivers found to be impaired by drugs; especially those who are repeat offenders or those with drug-use disorders.
iv) Mass media can play an important role in substance abuse prevention. They can be used to raise awareness concerning not only the dangers of drug abuse but also the dangers of specific practices such as injecting drugs.
National Programmes related to prevention of substance abuse:
Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW) and Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment (MSJE), Government of India are involved with alcohol and drug demand reduction policies and drug de-addiction programme (DDAP) in the country. Under the DDAP de-addiction centres have been established in association with various District Hospitals and psychiatry departments of Medical Colleges. The centre at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Delhi (AIIMS) has been designated as the “National Drug Dependence Treatment Centre” (NDDTC) and functions as a resource centre for the DDAP of MoHFW, GoI.
Various E- Health web based programmes related to prevention of substance abuse such as alcohol e-Help (alcoholwebindia.in/intervention) operated by NDDTC,AIIMS, Delhi (alcoholwebindia.in/) and m-Cessation programme (nhp.gov.in/quit-tobacco)for tobacco cessation have been initiated by MoHFW, GoI.
National AIDS Control Programme (NACP),MoHFW, GoI has implemented various targeted interventions programme for IDUs such as Needle syringe programme, Opioid substitution therapy.
The MSJE, GoI, has formulated the central sector scheme of assistance for prevention of alcoholism and substance (drugs) abuse and social defence services which has been updated in 2015.
The Department of Revenue, Central government acts as administrator of the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (NDPS) Act, 1985 and the Prevention of Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1988;
The Narcotics Control Bureau, Ministry of Home Affairs, GoI functions as an enforcement agency for NDPS Act.
Tips for prevention of substance abuse: youth
- Don’t be afraid to say no.
- Connect with your friends and avoid negative peer pressure.
- Make connections with your parents or other adults.
- Get educated about alcohol and drugs.
What is the Indian Government is doing? The Indian government has taken a significant step to help alcohol and drug abusers by launching a national toll-free helpline number – 1800-11-0031 and control drug abuse in India.Which is the most common substance abuse in India? ›
Cannabis, heroin, and Indian-produced pharmaceutical drugs are the most frequently abused drugs in India. Cannabis products, often called charas, bhang, or ganja, are abused throughout the country because it has attained some amount of religious sanctity because of its association with some Hindu deities.Is Nida a government agency? ›
NIDA is the lead federal agency supporting scientific research on drug use and addiction.What does the National Institute on drug abuse NIDA do? ›
Mission. The mission of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) is to advance science on the causes and consequences of drug use and addiction and to apply that knowledge to improve individual and public health.How do I report drug activity in my area? ›
- Illegal drug trafficking: submit a Tip online or call your local DEA office.
- Report criminals posing as DEA Special Agents, illegal sales/distribution of drugs; suspicious online pharmacies and other drug-distribution-related crimes. 877-RxAbuse (877-792-2873)
A ten-year prison sentence and a fine of up to one lakh rupees are possible penalties. Your punishment will range anywhere from 6 months to rigorous imprisonment of 20 years. Another feature of the NDPS Act is Section 31A which prescribes the death penalty, for repeated offences or certain rare cases.Which state is most drug addict in India? ›
More than 60% of all illicit drugs seized in India are from Punjab. According to a study, most addicts are between the age group of 15 and 35 and many are unemployed.What are the causes of substance abuse in India? ›
- Abuse of drugs among friends and peers.
- Lack of social support.
- Troubled relationships.
- Stress in life.
- Low socioeconomic status.
Under the NDPS Act, it is illegal for a person to produce/manufacture/cultivate, possess, sell, purchase, transport, store, and/or consume any narcotic drug or psychotropic substance. There are more than 70 substances that are banned under this act.Is there an age limit for NIDA? ›
Applicants seeking admission must:
NIDA may select candidates who turn 18 during their course). Have completed their Higher School Certificate or equivalent; ATAR is not required.
NIDA Clinical Trials Network Offers Free Human Research Training Program. The NIDA Clinical Trials Network has a free, online training course to prepare research staff to conduct substance use clinical trials with human participants.How long is a NIDA course? ›
All NIDA Bachelor of Fine Arts degrees are three-year full-time courses. All NIDA Master of Fine Arts courses, except for Cultural Leadership, are 15-month full-time courses.What are the government agencies established to prevent drug abuse? ›
- NATIONAL DRUG LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCY(NDLEA)
- NATIONAL AGENCY FOR FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION AND CONTROL (NAFDAC)
- CUSTOM AND EXCISE.
- THE NIGERIA POLICE.
The National Drug and Alcohol Treatment Monitoring System (NDTMS) collects person level, patient identifiable data from drug and alcohol treatment providers at a national level.Who is the current director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse NIDA )? ›
Nora D. Volkow, M.D., is Director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) at the National Institutes of Health.Can you anonymously report someone doing drugs? ›
Drug use or dealing is a crime and should be reported to the police immediately. You can contact the police on 101 or 999 in an emergency. If you want to report suspected drug dealing anonymously, you can do this through Crimestoppers on 0800 555 1111 or via their website.What happens when you report someone to the FBI? ›
The FBI will ask you to provide as much information as possible about the perpetrator and details of the threat you have experienced. The FBI will ask you for your contact information to follow up with you if needed. The FBI will attempt to protect your identity and confidentiality.How do I report an anonymous website? ›
If Google finds that site to violet its policies, they will update the status of the website in their report. And of course your report will count towards their transparency report in a totally anonymous way. You can find the Google transparency report website here: https://transparencyreport.google.com/.What is the bail for drug possession in India? ›
Section 37 of the NDPS Act says that drug-related offences are cognizable and non-bailable.Is consuming drugs a bailable offence? ›
The offence under Section 27 is punishable with imprisonment which may extend to six months and in view of the punishment prescribed, it falls in third entry in part II of the Schedule I of CRPC and, therefore, will be bailable.
Preparation to commit an offence attracts half the penalty. Repeat offences attract one and half times the penalty and in some cases even the death penalty. Consumption of drugs like cocaine, morphine and heroin attracts rigorous imprisonment up to one year or fine up to Rs. 20,000 or both.Which place is famous for drugs in India? ›
Hashish of Malan at Himachal, Magic Mushrooms from Kodaikanal, Idukki Gold in Kerala, Bhang and Opium of Rajasthan, Psychedelic drugs in Goa are major drugs or destinations that attracts domestic as well as international tourists.Who controls drugs in India? ›
The Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation(CDSCO)under Directorate General of Health Services,Ministry of Health & Family Welfare,Government of India is the National Regulatory Authority (NRA) of India.What is the main cause of drug abuse? ›
Peer pressure is a strong factor in starting to use and misuse drugs, particularly for young people. Lack of family involvement. Difficult family situations or lack of a bond with your parents or siblings may increase the risk of addiction, as can a lack of parental supervision.What are the 6 causes of substance abuse? ›
- Expectations of Masculinity and Self-Medication. ...
- Pressure Relating to Life Circumstances. ...
- Genetic Predisposition to Substance Use. ...
- Health Conditions. ...
- Trauma or Adverse Childhood Experiences. ...
Side effects of drug addiction may include:
Nausea and abdominal pain, which can also lead to changes in appetite and weight loss. Increased strain on the liver, which puts the person at risk of significant liver damage or liver failure. Seizures, stroke, mental confusion and brain damage. Lung disease.
Long-Term Effects of Drug or Alcohol Abuse
Using drugs or alcohol can cause dehydration-induced seizures and damage immune systems. This increases susceptibility to infection and further complications, psychotic behavior, and serious cardiovascular conditions, including heart attacks and collapsed veins.
One of the recommendations to reduce medication errors and harm is to use the “five rights”: the right patient, the right drug, the right dose, the right route, and the right time.What is section 13 in drug case? ›
– Any person found possessing any dangerous drug during a party, or at a social gathering or meeting, or in the proximate company of at least two (2) persons, shall suffer the maximum penalties provided for in Section 11 of this Act, regardless of the quantity and purity of such dangerous drugs.
"The Drug Listing Act of 1972 requires registered drug establishments to provide the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with a current list of all drugs manufactured, prepared, propagated, compounded, or processed by it for commercial distribution.
BACHELOR OF FINE ARTS 2020
For international students the 2020 annual tuition fee for Bachelor of Fine Arts in all disciplines is AUD$31,080.00 (made up of AUD $15,540.00for each of the two semesters in 2020). The Tuition Fees below apply to full time enrolment per year.
I've auditioned for NIDA several times and yes it is very hard to get accepted. I have a friend who graduated a couple of years ago and he is doing exceptionally well (big theatre roles, several television roles). Having said that he actually had an agent and had done professional work prior to being accepted.How many people get accepted into NIDA? ›
NIDA's Bachelor of Fine Arts in Acting is particularly competitive, with approximately 1,000 applicants per year attempting to secure one of 24 spots in the program.How can I get scholarship in NIDA? ›
Round 1: Apply by Monday 25 July for Spring Holidays and Term 4 2022. Limited places are available in each round and location. If your application is not successful, it will be automatically reconsidered in the next round (in 2023) and you won't have to reapply.How do I audition for NIDA? ›
Entry into NIDA is by audition or interview only. We do not ask for exam scores or ATARs. However, all applicants applying for any higher education course at NIDA must have completed their Higher School Certificate or equivalent.Why is NIDA good? ›
The award-winning NIDA campus is equipped with state-of-the-art facilities, including large-format digital screen technologies, and the Rodney Seaborn Library – one of Australia's leading performing arts-based libraries with over 30,000 drama and theatre-related books and play scripts.Can anyone get into NIDA? ›
Generally, NIDA Open courses are open to all. There are some courses, which have been designed to suit people with more advanced skills or experience. This is indicated on the information for courses. The NIDA Studio and Residency courses are selective and require an audition, interview or written application.Who went to NIDA? ›
|Ryan McDonald||2019||Technical Theatre and Stage Management (BFA)|
|Susie Henderson||2019||Technical Theatre and Stage Management (BFA)|
|Valerie Lim||2019||Technical Theatre and Stage Management (BFA)|
|Wun Zee||2019||Technical Theatre and Stage Management (BFA)|
It's never too late to start. Someone 40+ starts the same way a 20-year-old starts: by taking action. You set goals, commit to them, take class, take workshops, build relationships with other actors, etc. Many actors don't hit their stride until later in life anyway.What are the roles of government for controlling drug abuse? ›
(a) They regulate and control importation, exportation, manufacture, advertisement, distribution, sale and use of drugs. (b) They conduct tests and make sure that drugs are produced according to the set standards. (c) They investigate to find out the kind of materials that drugs are made up of.
NDLEA is in charge of drug policy and control in Nigeria. Within this purview, the Agency has the mandate to curtail illicit production, importation, exportation, sale and trafficking of psychoactive substances. Employees of NDLEA carry out interdiction and destruction of narcotic drugs and other illicit substances.How does the government regulate drugs? ›
At the federal level, drugs are regulated primarily through the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Within HHS, the two departments that are most involved are the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS).What is the goal of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health? ›
The primary objectives of NSDUH are to provide accurate data on the level and patterns of alcohol, tobacco and illegal substance use and abuse, track trends in the use of alcohol, tobacco and various types of drugs, assess the consequences of substance use and abuse and identify those groups at high risk for substance ...What is national drug delivery system? ›
What are drug delivery systems? Drug delivery systems describe technologies that carry drugs into or throughout the body. These technologies include the method of delivery, such as a pill that you swallow or a vaccine that is injected.Who conducts the National Survey on Drug Use and Health? ›
Implementing the Most Comprehensive Drug Use and Behavioral Health Study in the United States. Since 1988, RTI has worked with SAMHSA to conduct NSDUH and research the nature, extent, and consequences of substance use and related mental health issues in the United States.What are the 4 levels of the addiction process? ›
There are four levels of addiction: physical, emotional, mental, and spiritual. We will discuss each level in-depth and provide tips for overcoming addiction. Most people who try drugs or engage in risky behaviors don't become addicted.What are the four models of addiction? ›
The four C's of addiction are a helpful tool in distinguishing between addiction as a mental health disorder demanding treatment and other types of addictive behaviors. The four C's are compulsion, cravings, consequences, and control.Is NIDA a government agency? ›
NIDA is the lead federal agency supporting scientific research on drug use and addiction.How do I report a drug user? ›
Crime Stoppers is a national organization that provides a network of local programs throughout the United States that allows individuals—who witness illegal drug-related activities—to fill out an online form or make an anonymous call to file a report.What are the punishment for drug adulteration? ›
(a) Section 1 of this Act is liable on conviction To Life Imprisonment.
Nasha Mukt Bharat Abhiyaan intends to reach out to the masses and spread awareness about substance abuse through various activities like: Awareness generation programmes. Focus on higher educational Institutions, university campuses and schools. Reaching out to the Community and identifying dependent population.How do I report a fake drug? ›
The contact NAFDAC directly by going to their offices – http://www.nafdac.gov.ng/index.php/about-nafdac/zonal-office to make a complaint. We hope you have found this information helpful. Please note that this information is provided for general informational purposes only and is not intended to be legal advice.What to do if you find a bag of drugs? ›
Call your Local Authority to report what you have found and where. If the drug litter is in a public place, the Local Authority will dispose of it safely.Which state consumes most drugs in India? ›
The largest numbers of heroin abusers were found in Uttar Pradesh (17.3%), followed by Delhi (16.3%), West Bengal (15.0%), Manipur (10.1%) and Bihar (10.0%) (Figure 8). Altogether 1725 opium abusers were reported in the sample. There were no cases of opium abuse reported from Mizoram, Tamil Nadu and Tripura.Which IPC section for drugs? ›
Free for one month and pay only if you like it. 274. Adulteration of drugs.What is the jail time for drug consumption? ›
For a small quantity of drugs, the punishment is still a rigorous imprisonment for up to 6 months or a fine of Rs. 10,000 or both. More than a little quantity but less than business quantity would result in rigorous imprisonment for up to 10 years + fine up to Rs. 1 Lakhs.Is 21 a NDPS Act bailable? ›
After discussing the applicability of Part II of the First Schedule of the CrPC, the Allahabad High Court held that the offence under section 21(a), NDPS Act shall be bailable and can be tried by any Magistrate.WHO launched Nasha MUKT Bharat? ›
Nasha Mukt Bharat Abhiyaan (NMBA) was launched on 15th August 2020 by Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment in the 272 most vulnerable districts to substance use in the country.WHO has launched Nasha MUKT Bharat? ›
The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment has launched 'Nasha Mukt Bharat Abhiyaan' in 272 most vulnerable districts since August 2020 to address the problem of Drug Abuse among youth of India.What is Kuposhan MUKT Bharat? ›
Vision 2020-25: “Kuposhan Mukt Bharat Abhiyan”. - Free from malnutrition, across the life cycle. The National Nutrition Strategy is committed to ensuring that every child, adolescent girl, and woman attains optimal nutritional status– especially those from the most vulnerable communities.