What is Agile Scrum Methodology? A Complete Guide | upGrad blog (2023)

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According to SwarmOS, 98% of organisations have been helped by agile adoption. This article gathers the basics principles, concepts, and terms used in Agile Scrum Methodology, and also details the functional flow of Scrum in a typical software project environment.

Getting Familiar with Terminology

Before reading about the subject, understand the fundamental differences to the terms: Agile, Scrum, and Agile Scrum Methodology.

  • Agile and Scrum are two similar project management systems, with a few key differences. The Scrum framework brings effective collaborations within multifunctional teams.
  • Agile is flexible and focuses on team leadership.
  • Scrum is inflexible and deals with cross-functional teams.
  • Agile Scrum Methodology is a sprint-based system for managing software projects, whose goal is to deliver the highest value to stakeholders.

What is Agile Scrum Methodology? A Complete Guide | upGrad blog (1)Source

What is Agile Scrum Methodology?

Agile Scrum Methodology, a specially treated project management system, works on incremental development in product development. The iterations are divided into manageable time slabs, each of about four-week Sprints. Every goal-driven Sprint offers vital features that constructively develop a complete product. In subsequent sprints, add-on features and enhancements based on customer and team feedback are built into the product.

Difference Between Agile and Scrum

The basic difference between Agile and Scrum: Agile is a project management method that uses a basic set of advantages ​​or policies; Scrum is a specific agile method used for the convenience of the project. The full comparison of Agile software development methodology and the Scrum framework can give you detailed characteristics.


Agile, in short, is a software development methodology. It is a professional approach to software development. Agile involves a self-contained and cross-functional team that works to continuously improve the delivery through constant feedback shared throughout the sprints.

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Agile methods and procedures thus form an integral part of every delivery to improve the process.

Agile Manifesto

Agile is considered neither a set of rules, nor of quick guides, but a code of principles. Agile methodology complements planning and processes. Together, this manifesto supports compliance, versatility, intelligence, and managing software development.

Agile allows teams to work efficiently and focus on developing complex software projects. It includes methods that are easily accepted and use repetitive and iteration-based techniques that display excellent results.

There are a lot of agile-driven methods and techniques. These processes fulfil industry needs. The methodology is adaptable in software design, testing, architecture, development, distribution, and project management functions.

Agile Methodologies

Many Agile methodologies are in practice in several diversified industries. These include Scrum, Lean, Crystal, FDD, DSDM, TDD, and so on.

The most common Agile methods practised are:

  • Scrum,
  • Lean,
  • Crystal,
  • FDD (Feature Driven Development),
  • DSDM (Dynamic Software Development Method),
  • TDD (Test Drive Development) etc.

However, the most popular are:

  • Scrum is the most popular framework that brings effective collaboration between different teams working on complex products.
  • Kanban, a Japanese word, means card. Cards help in visualising the details of the work done on the software.
  • Extreme Programming is used in dynamic project environments where requirements change frequently. The ongoing feedback tool here encourages teams to improve overall productivity.


Scrum is a framework through which you can implement Agile.

It is the most popular Agile methodology across the software industry today. It is a lightweight methodology practised in software development that caters to small time-bound sprints meant for new features being integrated into the product.

Scrum drives self-managed development teams with three specially defined roles in the IT business. The roles are:

  • Product Owner (PO),
  • Scrum Master (SM), and
  • Development Team.

The first step is the PO creates a product backlog of a to-do list of things for the Scrum team. The Scrum team picks priority items to complete within the Sprint timeframe.

(Video) What is Agile? | Agile Methodology | Agile Frameworks - Scrum, Kanban, Lean, XP, Crystal | Edureka

Symbolically, Scrum can be marked as a 3-3-5 framework. This means a Scrum Project has 3 roles, 3 artworks, and 5 events.

What is Agile Scrum Methodology? A Complete Guide | upGrad blog (3)

Scrum features a series of event meetings, roles, and project management tools to help self-organised and focused teams better design and manage their tasks.

Scrum Roles

A Scrum team has three specific roles: Product Owner, Scrum Master, and Development Team.

The PO is considered the overall maintainer of the product. A Scrum team usually has a single PO. The PO is responsible for managing requirements, business needs, and customer expectations. It decides and finalises features, sets the roadmap, and prioritises backlogs and tasks.

Scrum Master serves as a facilitator and champion for Scrum in his team. As an intermediary, Scrum Master guides the team and product owners and drives the best practices. Scrum Master essentially optimises the transparency of the distribution stream. It sets up the right resources for sprint planning, review, and sprint retrospective.

A development team is a small group of cross-functional professionals. The development team here is an efficient mix team. The team has around ten or fewer members. They work the respective bits as assigned by the PO. In addition to the developers, the development team includes designers, testers, UX experts, and analysts.

Scrum Artifacts

These tools are documented evidence to constantly monitor the situation and resolve any issues. The three artworks include a product backlog, a sprint backlog, and an increase.

The Product Backlog is a dynamic list of items worked in Sprint. It lists requirements, new features, enhancements, and fixes. Open items act as input for Sprint backlog. Product owners regularly revise backlogs to meet priorities.

Sprint Backlog is a list of task items derived from product backlogs to handle in the current Sprint. There are user stories or bug fixes included. The development team identifies things to be achieved from the product backlog items in the backlog at the sprint planning meeting.

Definition of readiness (DoR) is a starting parameter that determines the readiness of a task when a specification is set, and inputs are available for the task. Breakdown charts help monitor the rest of the team on any Sprint cycle.

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An Increment denotes potentially releasable sprint results. It presents the team’s “Done” (DoD) definition, a milestone, exit criteria, or shipped epic. It is also called a Sprint goal. Here, speed through the evaluation of the teams – it is planned to perform tasks in a series of tasks.


The team works within the framework of Scrum and decides the schedule of the meeting periodically. This by-election ensures that the team will be consistent with the actual progress and that the product owner will take appropriate action.

The Sprint event falls in the timeline. The event duration is standardised with work complexity. The 4-week sprint model is common for the development of software products.

Sprint Planning is a pre-sprint event to review and approve the scope of work considering backlog items. The goal-based planning helps the PO to prioritise the work items. This meeting helps the development team improve the work items and divert the obstructed ones. A typical planning meeting takes a maximum of 8 hours.

Daily Scrum is a fast-track meeting. Here, developers share work progress and plan to address items during the day and the risks to the whole limit or work. The goal is for everyone on the team to stay in sync and have plans to achieve for a day. The duration of this event is a week or a month, following the sprint rules.

The Sprint Review comes at the end of the sprint. This meeting takes a few hours. In review meetings, feature owners display incremental progress on completed items and seek criticism and constructive feedback. This is the time when the PO decides whether the product being delivered is ready or not. The typical review meeting lasts 4 hours for the monthly sprint.

The Sprint is also useful at the end of the retrospective sprint. The team refers to the previous sprint and continues the lesson learned. The aim is to find and agree on an action plan for continuous process improvement.

Agile Scrum Methodology Benefits

There are many advantages to the Agile Scrum Methodology. Primarily, it fastens product development. All goals are preserved in the sprint iterations. The prerequisite efforts in regular planning and goal setting help the Scrum team concentrate on current Sprint goals and boosts productivity.

  • Regular feedback from stakeholders over sprints give the opportunity of adjusting and improving product features.
  • Agile eases product managers and developers frequently reviewing and retooling current plans based on new information that the team is continually gathering and analysing.
  • Frequent review and analysis in Agile methodology give opportunities to product managers and developers for improvements.

Agile Scrum Methodology also supports in business functioning as below:

  • Agile helps to tackle expensive features with a planned timeline, thereby lowering the overall costs.
  • The vigilance assigned by the team in testing and evaluation improves the quality of the product.
  • Help teams to stay organised and work together on the same page, with a common sprint objective.
  • With increments visibility, customers bag satisfactory deliverables.

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(Video) NEW Intro to AGILE Scrum in Under 5 Minutes - Agile Methodology - www.scrum-methodology.org


Agile Scrum Methodology adoption has opened up opportunities for professionals working in a highly responsible role. The knowledge in Agile always aids students who are looking for a project management role in the software domain.

We, at upGrad, take trends and industry practices into account in all programs. The curriculum and knowledge base at upGrad are thoroughly designed with high-end technologies and work practices followed in the industry. This subject is elaborated and stressed with vital industry case studies. The courses in the software domain, such as Executive PG Program in Full Stack Software Development, help strengthen your skill in Agile software development.

What is agile development?

Who is an agile master?

A master of Agile is called as agile master. They are responsible for keeping their team, the project and the product aligned with the agile values and principles. Agile masters are the person who leads their team to understand and embrace the agile values, principles and practices. They are the one who keep each and every team member on the same page. They are the one who help their team address their issues with each other and guide resolving conflicts. They also facilitate communication in the team and with the stakeholders.

What is the average salary of an Agile master?

According to Payscale, the annual salary of an Agile master ranges from $61,974 to $118,000. The salary you earn depends on the organization you work for and on your experience. A seasoned Agile coach can earn $200,000 annually, but this is a rarity. It depends on the size of the company and the skill set of the candidate. Agile masters usually make more money in financial services, IT and computer software development. An Agile master earns between $86,000 and $117,000 per year.

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What is the agile scrum methodology? ›

Agile scrum methodology is a project management system that relies on incremental development. Each iteration consists of two- to four-week sprints, where the goal of each sprint is to build the most important features first and come out with a potentially deliverable product.

What are the 5 phases of scrum methodology? ›

According to Tuckman, all phases—Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing and Adjourning—are necessary for the team to grow, tackle problems, find solutions, plan work, and deliver results. This article provides a brief overview of the model, including descriptions and strategies for each phase.

What is Agile methodology in simple words? ›

The Agile methodology is a way to manage a project by breaking it up into several phases. It involves constant collaboration with stakeholders and continuous improvement at every stage. Once the work begins, teams cycle through a process of planning, executing, and evaluating.

What are the 5 important types of Agile methodology? ›

There are 5 main Agile methodologies: Scrum, Kanban, Extreme Programming (XP), Lean Development e Crystal.

What are the 4 principles of Agile? ›

The four core values of Agile software development as stated by the Agile Manifesto are:
  • individuals and interactions over processes and tools;
  • working software over comprehensive documentation;
  • customer collaboration over contract negotiation; and.
  • responding to change over following a plan.

What are the 3 pillars in scrum? ›

Understand Scrum

If you carefully scrutinize scrum, you will find again and again the three pillars of empirical process control: transparency, inspection, and adaptation.

What are the 4 pillars of scrum? ›

These events work because they implement the empirical Scrum pillars of transparency, inspection, and adaptation.
  • Transparency. ...
  • Inspection. ...
  • Adaptation. ...
  • Developers. ...
  • Product Owner. ...
  • Scrum Master. ...
  • The Sprint. ...
  • Sprint Planning.

What are the 3 rules of scrum? ›

Basic Scrum Rules

There are no Breaks Between Sprints. Every Sprint is the Same Length. The Intention of Every Sprint is “Potentially Shippable” Software.

What are the 12 principles of scrum? ›

The 12 Agile Principles: What Are They and Do They Still Matter?
  • Early and Continuous Delivery of Valuable Software. ...
  • Embrace Change. ...
  • Frequent Delivery. ...
  • Business and Developers Together. ...
  • Motivated Individuals. ...
  • Face-to-Face Conversation. ...
  • Working Software. ...
  • Sustainable Development.
3 Jun 2021

How do I explain the Agile methodology in an interview? ›

Agile is a process in which a team can manage a project by dividing it into several phases. It involves regular interaction with stakeholders and continuous improvement and photography at all stages. The Agile approach starts with customers explaining how the final product will be used and what problem it will solve.

What is the difference between Agile and scrum? ›

The key difference between Agile and Scrum is that while Agile is a project management philosophy that utilizes a core set of values or principles, Scrum is a specific Agile methodology that is used to facilitate a project.

What are the 6 steps in the Agile methodology? ›

What are the 6 steps in Agile project management?
  • Project planning. ...
  • Product roadmap creation. ...
  • Release planning. ...
  • Sprint planning. ...
  • Daily stand-ups. ...
  • Sprint review and retrospective.
18 Mar 2022

What are the six agile principles? ›

Collaboration, open communication, trust and independence, efficiency, and continuous delivery are the foundation of agile and they can make a lasting positive impact almost anywhere in your organization.

What are 3 advantages to agile methods? ›

The benefits of Agile
  • Satisfied customers. By involving customers in the development process, Agile teams keep them in the loop and show that they value their opinion. ...
  • Improved quality. ...
  • Adaptability. ...
  • Predictability. ...
  • Reduced risk. ...
  • Better communication.

What is the 3 phases of agile life cycle? ›

The Continuous Delivery:Lean Life Cycle. The Exploratory (Lean Startup) Life Cycle. The Program Life Cycle for a Team of Teams.

What are the six elements of Scrum? ›

Scrum makes rapid application development possible through consistent reliance on the six core principles: empirical process control, self-organization, collaboration, value-based prioritization, time-boxing, and iterative development.

What are the 7 Scrum artifacts? ›

The scrum framework consists of artifacts, roles and ceremonies. These elements help product and software development teams manage their work.
The Seven Scrum Artifacts
  • Product Vision. ...
  • Product Backlog. ...
  • Sprint Vision. ...
  • Sprint Backlog. ...
  • Definition of Done (DOD) ...
  • Product Increment. ...
  • Burndown Chart.
3 Mar 2022

What are the 8 stances of a scrum master? ›

As a Scrum Master, I'll try to be a servant-leader, facilitator, coach, conflict navigator, manager, mentor, teacher, impediment remover, and change agent.

Who is the boss in Scrum? ›

In textbook Scrum teams there are no bosses, everyone is on eye-level. In Kanban, you start with the roles you have, though chances are that they will change over time. Whatever flavor of Agile you are working with, you'll likely have to figure out where bosses / people managers fit it.

Which is the golden rule in scrum? ›

These are the five golden rules in Scrum: Openness: Scrum sees collaboration as the most effective way to create the best possible product. So teamwork and transparency are essential. Rather than anxiously downplaying problems, Scrum team members are open about their progress and any roadblocks they encounter.

What are the 3 questions in daily scrum? ›

During the daily scrum, each team member answers the following three questions: What did you do yesterday? What will you do today? Are there any impediments in your way?

What is the 80/20 rule in scrum? ›

The Pareto Principle, commonly referred to as the 80/20 rule, states that 80% of the effect comes from 20% of causes. Or, in terms of work and time management, 20% of your efforts will account for 80% of your results.

What is the first thing a Scrum Master should do? ›

Sit down with the product owner and ask him to tell you about the product, its vision, strategy, objectives, roadmap, metrics, hypotheses at work, etc.

What is Scrum Master in simple terms? ›

A Scrum Master is a facilitator for an Agile development team. They are responsible for managing the exchange of information between team members. Scrum is a project management framework that enables a team to communicate and self-organize to make changes quickly, in accordance with Agile principles.

How many sprints are in a Scrum? ›

Given that the average length of a complete project is 11.6 weeks and the average sprint is 2.4 weeks, the average Scrum project lasts for 4.8 sprints.

What happens at the end of a Scrum? ›

So at the end of each sprint, a sprint review meeting is held. During this meeting, the Scrum team shows what they accomplished during the sprint. Typically this takes the form of a demo of the new features.

What is Agile lifecycle? ›

The Agile software development life cycle is the structured series of stages that a product goes through as it moves from beginning to end. It contains six phases: concept, inception, iteration, release, maintenance, and retirement.

What are the 3 principles of Agile? ›

The 3 principles behind agile tools - Transparency, Iteration, Empowerment.

What is the difference between scrum and Agile methodology? ›

The key difference between Agile and Scrum is that while Agile is a project management philosophy that utilizes a core set of values or principles, Scrum is a specific Agile methodology that is used to facilitate a project.

What is scrum methodology with example? ›

Here's an example of how Scrum works: Bill meets with a customer to discuss her company's needs. Those needs are the product backlog. Bill chooses the most important tasks to work on in the next two weeks. His team meets in a daily scrum to target work for the day ahead and address roadblocks.

What are the 3 C's in Scrum? ›

The Three 'C's
  • Cardi The Card, or written text of the User Story is best understood as an invitation to conversation. ...
  • Conversation. The collaborative conversation facilitated by the Product Owner which involves all stakeholders and the team. ...
  • Confirmation.

What are 3 pillars of Scrum? ›

Understand Scrum

If you carefully scrutinize scrum, you will find again and again the three pillars of empirical process control: transparency, inspection, and adaptation.

What are the 12 principles of Scrum? ›

The 12 Agile Principles: What Are They and Do They Still Matter?
  • Early and Continuous Delivery of Valuable Software. ...
  • Embrace Change. ...
  • Frequent Delivery. ...
  • Business and Developers Together. ...
  • Motivated Individuals. ...
  • Face-to-Face Conversation. ...
  • Working Software. ...
  • Sustainable Development.
3 Jun 2021

Why is it called scrum? ›

The term scrum is borrowed from rugby, where it is a formation of players. The term scrum was chosen by the paper's authors because it implies teamwork. The software development term scrum was first used in a 1986 paper titled "The New New Product Development Game" by Hirotaka Takeuchi and Ikujiro Nonaka.

Why do they call it scrum in Agile? ›

Scrum is often part of Agile software development. It is named for a rugby formation in which everyone plays a role. Software development Scrum roles include the following: Product owner.

How do I learn Agile and scrum? ›

Ways To Learn About Scrum
  1. Everyone - Take a Professional Scrum Foundations Course. ...
  2. Scrum Masters - Take a Professional Scrum Master Course. ...
  3. Product Owners - Take a Professional Scrum Product Owner Course. ...
  4. Developers - Take an Applying Professional Scrum for Software Development Course.

What is the main purpose of scrum? ›

Scrum is a process framework used to manage product development and other knowledge work. Scrum is empirical in that it provides a means for teams to establish a hypothesis of how they think something works, try it out, reflect on the experience, and make the appropriate adjustments.

What is the full meaning of scrum? ›

scrum noun (IN SPORT)

[ C ] (also scrummage, uk/ˈskrʌm.ɪdʒ/ us/ˈskrʌm.ɪdʒ/) in the sport of rugby, a group of attacking players from each team who come together with their heads down and arms joined, and push against each other, trying to take control of the ball.

What is agile and scrum for beginners? ›

Agile refers to a set of “methods and practices based on the values and principles expressed in the Agile Manifesto,” which includes things like collaboration, self-organization, and cross functionality of teams. Scrum is a framework that is used to implement Agile development.


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